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Articles

2024

Artamonova, A., Sorsa, T., Berg, V., Hägglund, A. E., & Rotkirch, A. (2024). Counting on parents or others? The role of social support for fertility intentions in Finland. Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, 57: 165–190. https://doi.org/10.23979/fypr.131297

Artamonova, A., Sorsa, T., Berg, V., Hägglund, A.E. & Rotkirch, A. (2024). Social Resources are Associated With Higher Fertility Intentions in Contemporary Finland. Comparative Population Studies. 49, (Apr. 2024). https://doi.org/10.12765/CPoS-2024-04

Chapman S.N. & Lummaa V. (2024). Grandmother Effects Over the Finnish Demographic Transition. Evolutionary Human Sciences. Published online 2024:1-19. https://doi.org/10.1017/ehs.2023.36

de Bel, V. & Widmer, E. D. (2024). Positive, negative, and ambivalent dyads and triads with family and friends: A personal network study on how they are associated with young adults’ well-being. Social Networks, 78, 184–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2024.02.004

Helle, S., Tanskanen, A.O., Coall, D.A., Perry, G., Daly, M. & Danielsbacka, M. (2024). Investment by maternal grandmother buffers children against the impacts of adverse early life experiences. Sci Rep. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-56760-5

Kääriäinen, J., Danielsbacka, M., & Tanskanen, A. (2024). Attitudes Towards Filial Responsibility in 11 European Countries: Changes Between 2001 and 2017. Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, 57, 81–106. https://doi.org/10.23979/fypr.132000

Hägglund, A., Sorsa, T., Berg, V., & Rotkirch, A. (2024). The first Generations and Gender Survey in Finland: data collection and data quality. Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, 57, 107–126. https://doi.org/10.23979/fypr.142715

Hämäläinen, H., Tanskanen, A. O., Arpino, B., Solé-Auró, A. & Danielsbacka, M., (2024). Is Transition to Retirement Associated with Volunteering? Longitudinal Evidence from Europe. Research on Aging, https://doi.org/10.1177/016402752412517

Hämäläinen, H., Tanskanen, A. O., Arpino, B., Abuladze, L., Solé-Auró, A., & Danielsbacka, M. (2024). Changes in Resources and Volunteering: A Longitudinal Study of Active Engagement Among Older Europeans. The Gerontologist, https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnae049

Nolan, A., Aaltonen, A. & Danielsbacka, M. (2024). The Effect of Informal Caregiving on Depression: An Asymmetric Panel Fixed-Effects Analysis of In-Home and Out-Of-Home Caregivers Across Europe, Journal of Aging & Social Policy, DOI: 10.1080/08959420.2024.2348968

Pettay, J.E., Coall, D.A., Danielsbacka M. & Tanskanen, A.O. (2024). The role of mating effort and co-residence history in step-grandparental investment. Evolutionary Human Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1017/ehs.2024.17

Puur, A., Sakkeus, L., Abuladze, L., Gortfelder, M., Klesment, M., Rahnu, L., & Tambaum, T. (2024). The Estonian Generations and Gender Survey 2020: Experience with large-scale web-based data collection. Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, 57, 127–144. https://doi.org/10.23979/fypr.141918

Soini, E., Rosenström, T., Määttänen, I. & Jokela, M. (2024). Physical activity and specific symptoms of depression: A pooled analysis of six cohort studies. Journal of Affective Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2023.12.039

2023

Abuladze L, Sakkeus L, Selezneva E and Sinyavskaya O (2023). Comparing the cognitive functioning of middle-aged and older foreign-origin population in Estonia to host and origin populations. Front. Public Health 11:1058578. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2023.1058578

Artamonova, A. & Gillespie, B. J. (2023). Geographic proximity to siblings in older adulthood. Demographic Research. Vol 49. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2023.49.7

Chapman, S, Danielsbacka, M., Tanskanen, A.O., Lahdenperä, M., Pettay, J. & Lummaa, V. (2023). Grandparental co-residence and grandchild survival: the role of resource competition in a pre-industrial population. Behavioral Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arad013

de Bel, Vera. (2023). Multi-Functional Ties and Well-Being in Family Networks before and after Parental Divorce. Social Sciences 12: 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12110586

de Bel, V., Potarca, G., & Van Duijn, M. A. J. (2023). “Fault lines” and substitution in the family network: Three-generational, bi- lateral, and gendered contact patterns in divorced and non-divorced families. SocArXiv. August 24. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/rvq9h

Drosinou, M., Palomäki, J., Kunnari, A., Koverola, M., Jokela, M., & Laakasuo, M. (2023). Modeling levels of eco-conscious awareness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 113. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.13010

Golovina, K., Nitsche, N., Berg, V., Miettinen, A., Rotkirch, A. & Jokela, M. Birth cohort changes in fertility ideals: evidence from repeated cross-sectional surveys in Finland, European Sociological Review, 2023;, jcad048, https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcad048

Hämäläinen, H., Tanskanen, A. O., Pettay, J. & Danielsbacka, M. Step-gap in Upward Support: The Role of Biological Relatedness and Childhood Co-residence Duration, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 2023;, gbad179, https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbad179

Hämäläinen, H., Tanskanen, A. O. & Danielsbacka, M. (2023). Who are ‘Multi-Helpers’? Profile of Older Adults Engaging in Multiple Help-Giving Activities. Journal of Population Ageing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12062-023-09415-8

Iñiguez, G., Heydari, S., Kertész, J. & Saramäki, J. Universal patterns in egocentric communication networks. Nat Commun 14, 5217 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-40888-5

Jokela, M. & Laakasuo, M. (2023). Health trajectories of individuals who quit active religious attendance: analysis of four prospective cohort studies in the United States. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-023-02497-x

Karhunen, O., Jokela, M., & Golovina, K. (2023). Associations between early family environment and fertility ideals. International Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12933.

Kauppi, J., Chapman, S., Pettay, J., Lahdenperä, M., Lummaa, V., & Loehr, J. (2023). Sex, age, and family structure influence dispersal behaviour after a forced migration. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 5, E21. https://doi.org/10.1017/ehs.2023.16

Laakasuo, M., Sundvall, J., Francis, K., Drosinou, M., Hannikainen, I., Kunnari, A. & Palomäki, J. (2023). Would you exchange your soul for immortality?—existential meaning and afterlife beliefs predict mind upload approval.Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1254846

Laakasuo, M. (2023). Moral Uncanny Valley revisited – how human expectations of robot morality based on robot appearance moderate the perceived morality of robot decisions in high conflict moral dilemmas. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1270371

Lahdenperä, M., Galante, L., Gonzales-Inca, C., Vahtera, J., Pentti, J., Rautava, S., Käyhkö, N., Yonemitsu, C., Gupta, J., Bode, L. & Lagström, H. (2023). Residential green environments are associated with human milk oligosaccharide diversity and composition. Scientific Reports 13:216. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-27317-1

Nitsch, A., Faurie, C. & Lummaa, V. Sibling competition, dispersal and fitness outcomes in humans. Scientific Reports 13, 7539 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-33700-3

Pettay, J.E., Danielsbacka, M., Helle, S. et al. Parental Investment by Birth Fathers and Stepfathers. Hum Nat (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-023-09450-6

Sakkeus, L., Schwanitz, K., Abuladze, L. & Rudissaar, U. (2023). Life-course Factors and Later Life Health in Eastern and Western Europe. Comparative Population Studies, 48, 231−260. https://doi.org/10.12765/CPoS-2023-10

Saramäki, J. & Holme, P. (eds.) (2023). Temporal Network Theory. Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36461-7

Saramäki, J. Badie-Modiri, A., Rizi, A.K., Kivelä, M. & Karsai, M. (2023). Weighted temporal event graphs and temporal-network connectivity, in: Temporal Network Theory, eds. J. Saramäki and P. Holme, Springer, Berlin. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-30399-9_6

Soini, E., Rosenström, T., Määttänen, I. & Markus Jokela, M. (2023). Physical activity and specific symptoms of depression: A pooled analysis of six cohort studies. Journal of Affective Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2023.12.039

Sundvall, J., Drosinou, M., Hannikainen, I., Elovaara, K., Halonen, J., Herzon, V., Kopecký, R., Jirout Košová, M., Koverola, M., Kunnari, A., Perander, S., Saikkonen, T., Palomäki, J., & Laakasuo, M. (2023). Innocence over utilitarianism: Heightened moral standards for robots in rescue dilemmas. European Journal of Social Psychology, 00, 1– 26. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2936

Tambellini, E., Danielsbacka, M. & Rotkirch A. (2023). Do Working and Parenting Trajectories Influence Retirement Timing? Evidence From Spain, Using a Sequence Analysis Approach and Focusing on Women. Work, Aging and Retirement. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/workar/waad018

Tammisalo, K., Danielsbacka, M., Tanskanen, A.O. & Arpino, B. (2023). Social media contact with family members and happiness in younger and older adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2023.108103

Tanskanen, A.O., Danielsbacka, M., Hämäläinen, H. (2023). Child-Rearing: Gender Roles. In: Shackelford, T.K. (eds) Encyclopedia of Sexual Psychology and Behavior. Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-031-08956-5_61-1

Tanskanen, A.O., Helle, S. & Danielsbacka, M. (2023). Differential grandparental investment when maternal grandmothers are living versus deceased. Biology Letters, 19 (5). http://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2023.0061

Tanskanen, A.O., Metsä-Simola, N., Volotinen, L., Danielsbacka, M., Martikainen, P. & Remes, H. (2023). Maternal psychiatric and somatic illness, and the risk of unintentional injuries in children: variation by type of maternal illness, type of injury and child age Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 77, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2023-220960

Tuominen, M., Kilpi-Jakonen, E., García Velázquez, R., Castaneda, A. & Kuusio, H. (2023). Building social capital in a new home country. A closer look into the predictors of bonding and bridging relationships of migrant populations at different education levels, Migration Studies, 2023; mnad022. https://doi.org/10.1093/migration/mnad022

Tuominen, M.& Tikkanen, J. (2023). Adolescent social capital: An intergenerational resource? Journal of Adolescence, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1002/jad.12215

Ukonaho S., Chapman S. N., Briga M., and Lummaa V. Grandmother presence improved grandchild survival against childhood infections but not vaccination coverage in historical FinnsProc. R. Soc. B.290: 20230690. http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2023.0690

Zilincikova, Z., Linares, I. P., Artamonova, A., Brandén, M., & Schnor, C. (2023). Residential choice following separation and widowhood in middle and later life in Belgium and Sweden. Population, Space and Place, e2709. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2709

2021-2022

Danielsbacka, M., Tanskanen, A.O. & Billari, F.C. (2022). Meeting online and family-related outcomes: evidence from three German cohorts. Journal of Family Studies, 28: 4, 1390-1415. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13229400.2020.1835694

Danielsbacka, M., Tammisalo, K. & Tanskanen, A.O. (2022). Digital and traditional communication with kin: displacement or reinforcement? Journal of Family Studies, 28. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13229400.2022.2040575

Danielsbacka, Mirkka, Lenka Křenková, and Antti O. Tanskanen (2022). ”Grandparenting, health, and well-being: A systematic literature review.” European Journal of Ageing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-021-00674-y

Gietel-Basten S, Rotkirch A, Sobotka T. Changing the perspective on low birth rates: why simplistic solutions won’t work. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2022-072670

Helle, S., Tanskanen, A.O., Pettay, J.E. et al. (2022). The interplay of grandparental investment according to the survival status of other grandparent types. Sci Rep 12, 14390. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-18693-9

Helle Samuli., Antti O. Tanskanen, David A. Coall and Mirkka Danielsbacka (2022). Matrilateral bias of grandparental investment in grandchildren persists despite the grandchildren’s adverse early life experiences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 289. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.2574

Heydari, S., Huang, Z., Hiraoka, T., Ponce de León Chávez, A., Ala-Nissila, T., Leskelä, L., Kivelä, M. & Saramäki, J. (2022). Estimating inter-regional mobility during disruption: Comparing and combining different data source. Travel Behaviour and Society, 31, 93-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2022.11.005

Laakasuo, M., Palomäki, J., Kunnari, A., Rauhala, S., Drosinou, M., Halonen, J., Lehtonen, N., Koverola, M., Repo, M., Sundvall, J., Visala, A., & Francis, K. B. (2022). Moral psychology of nursing robots: Exploring the role of robots in dilemmas of patient autonomy. European Journal of Social Psychology, 00, 121. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2890

Marois, G., Rotkirch, A., & Lutz, W. (2022). Future population ageing and productivity in Finland under different education and fertility scenarios. Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, 56, 137–160. https://doi.org/10.23979/fypr.119666

Nisén, J., Jalovaara, M., Rotkirch, A. & Gissler, M. (2022). Fertility recovery despite the COVID-19 pandemic in Finland? Finnish Journal of Social Research https://doi.org/10.51815/fjsr.120361

Rickard, I.J., Vullioud, C., Rousset, F. et al. Mothers with higher twinning propensity had lower fertility in pre-industrial Europe. Nat Commun 13, 2886 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30366-9

Savelieva K., Jokela M. & Rotkirch A. (2022). Reasons to Postpone Childbearing during Fertility Decline in Finland. Marriage & Family Review. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2022.2083283

Tammisalo K, Rotkirch A. (2022). Effects of information and communication technology on the quality of family relationships: A systematic review. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. https://doi.org/10.1177/02654075221087942

Tammisalo Kristiina, Mirkka Danielsbacka, E. Andersson and Antti O. Tanskanen (2022). Predictors of Social Media Use in Two Family Generations. Frontiers in Sociology. 6:813765. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2021.813765 

Tanskanen, A.O., Danielsbacka, M., Hämäläinen, H. (2023). Child-Rearing: Gender Roles. In: Shackelford, T.K. (eds) Encyclopedia of Sexual Psychology and Behavior. Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-031-08956-5_61-1

Tanskanen, A., Hämäläinen, H., Arpino, B., & Danielsbacka, M. (2022). Prosocial activity in later life: Are informal help and care associated with volunteering and charity? Ageing and Society, 1-36.https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X22001015

Tanskanen, Antti O., Mirkka Danielsbacka, and Anna Rotkirch (2021). ”Kin detection cues and sibling relationship quality in adulthood: The role of childhood co-residence duration and maternal perinatal association.” Evolution and Human Behavior42:6, 481–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2021.05.004

Tanskanen, A.O. & Danielsbacka, M. (Eds.) (2022). Research Topic: Family and Extended Kin. Frontiers in Sociology, 7. https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/17399/family-and-extended-kin

Tanskanen, A.O. & Danielsbacka, M. (2022). Editorial: Family and Extended Kin. Frontiers in Sociology, 7. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsoc.2022.906081/full


Working papers

2024

Hämäläinen, H., Tanskanen, A. O., Arpino, B., Abuladze, L., Solé-Auró, A., & Danielsbacka, M. (2024). Changes in Resources and Active Engagements: A Longitudinal Study of Volunteering Among Older Europeans. INVEST Working Papers 89. SocArXiv, doi: https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/cfev4

Jokela, M., Laakasuo, M., Parikka, S., Rotkirch, A., & Hämäläinen, H. (2024). Psychological and social wellbeing associated with regional population change in Finland. SocArXiv, doi: https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/us3wk

Jokela, M., Soini, E., Laakasuo, M., Parikka, S., Rotkirch, A., & Hämäläinen, H. (2024). Residential mobility and strength of social ties: Regional analysis in Finland. SocArXiv, doi: https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/b5guj

Soini, E., Golovina, K., Hämäläinen, H., Rotkirch, A., Berg, V., Parikka, S., & Jokela, M. (2024). Regional social cohesion and fertility rate: Municipality-level analysis in Finland. SocArXiv. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/26457

Soini, E., Helminen, V. & Jokela, M. (2024). Social cohesion and mechanisms of depopula1on. SocArXiv. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/khv2f

2023

de Bel, V., Potarca, G., & van Duijn, M. A. (2023, August 24). “Fault lines” and substitution in the family network: Three-generational, bi-lateral and gendered contact patterns in divorced and non-divorced families. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/rvq9h

Estévez, J.L. & Rotkirch, A. (2023). Too Early or Not Soon Enough? Examining Timing of Parenthood among Migrant Descendants. SocArXiv, INVEST Working Papers 81/2023. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/aqw6h/

Hämäläinen, H., Tanskanen, A.O., Pettay, J. & Danielsbacka, M. (2023). Step-gap in Upward Support Regarding Biological Relatedness and Childhood Co-residence Duration. INVEST Working Papers, 73/2023. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/xcg8j

Lehti, H., & Tanskanen, A.O. (2023). Stranger adoption, intrafamilial adoption and kin adoption in Finland. INVEST Working Paper 85/2023. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/ns89d

Mäki, M., Hägglund, A. E., Rotkirch, A., Kulathinal, S., & Myrskylä, M. (2022). Stable marital histories predict happiness and health across educational groups. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/e43v6

Pettay, J.E., Coall, D.A., Danielsbacka, M. & Tanskanen, A.O. (2023). Step-grandparental investment: role of childhood co-residence with grandchild’s parent. SocArXiv, INVEST Working Papers 82/2023. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/ag6b2/

Soini, E., Golovina, K., Hämäläinen, H., Rotkirch, A., Berg,V., Parikka, S. & Jokela, M. Regional social cohesion and fertility rate: Municipality-level analysis in Finland. SocArXiv Papers. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/26457

Tammisalo, K., Danielsbacka, M., Tanskanen, A.O. & Arpino, B. (2023). Social media contact with kin and happiness in two generations. INVEST Working Papers 70/2023. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/ct76h/

Tanskanen Antti O., Samuli Helle, Mirkka Danielsbacka (2023). Differential grandparental investment when maternal grandmothers are dead vs alive. INVEST Working Papers, 67/2023. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/p3hz2

Tanskanen A.O., Metsä-Simola, N., Volotinen, L., Danielsbacka, M., Martikainen, P. & Remes, H. (2023). Maternal illness and childhood injuries in Finland. SocArXiv. INVEST Working Papers, 74/2023. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/kbda6/

2021-2022

Helle Samuli, Antti O. Tanskanen, David A. Coall, Gretchen Perry, Martin Daly, Mirkka Danielsbacka (2022). ”Investment by maternal grandmother buffers children against the impacts of adverse early life experiences: A causal analysis based on instrumental variable regression”. INVEST Working Paper. SocArXiv. 59/2022. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/p6a8k

Hämäläinen, Hans, Antti O. Tanskanen, and Mirkka Danielsbacka. 2022. “The Profile of “super-helpers”? Findings from the Generational – Transmissions in Finland Survey” INVEST Working Paper 48/2022. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/36asw

Kääriäinen Juha, Mirkka Danielsbacka, Antti O. Tanskanen (2022). Attitudes towards filial responsibility between 2001 and 2017 in Europe. INVEST Working Papers, 61/2022. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/mkzcv

Mäki, M., Hägglund, A. E., Rotkirch, A., Kulathinal, S., Myrskylä, M. Stable marital histories predict happiness and health across educational groups. MPIDR Working Paper WP-2022-035, 41 pages. Rostock, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (December 2022) https://dx.doi.org/10.4054/MPIDR-WP-2022-035

Nisén, Jessica, Marika Jalovaara, Anna Rotkirch, and Mika Gissler. 2022. “Fertility Recovery Despite the COVID-19 Pandemic in Finland?.” INVEST Working Paper 50/2022 SocArXiv. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/fxwe3

Tanskanen, Antti O., Hans Hämäläinen, and Mirkka Danielsbacka. 2022. Prosocial engagement among older Finns: Are informal help and care associated with volunteering and charity? INVEST Working Paper 45/2022. SocArXiv. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/g7ak2/

Tuominen, Minna,  Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina, Garcia-Velázquez, Regina, Castaneda, Anu & Kuusio Hannamaria (2022). “Building ties in a new home country: A closer look into the social network characteristics of foreign-born populations”. INVEST Working Paper 49/2022. SocArXiv. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/3hcpk

Other publications

2024

Artamonova, A. & Berg, V. (2024). Social support matters for fertility intentions in Finland. Science leak article 5/2024. Helsinki: Väestöliitto, Population Research Institute. Available: https://www.vaestoliitto.fi/en/articles/social-support-matters-for-fertility-intentions-in-finland/

Rotkirch, A. & Artamonova, A. (2024). Finns feel lonelier than others. Science leak article 2/2024. Helsinki: Väestöliitto, Population Research Institute. Available: https://www.vaestoliitto.fi/en/articles/finns-feel-lonelier-than-others/

2023

Artamonova, Alyona (2023). Who lives close to siblings in later life? Science leak -article 5/2023. Helsinki: Väestöliitto, Population Research Institute. Available: https://www.vaestoliitto.fi/en/articles/who-lives-close-to-siblings-in-later-life/

Golovina, K. (2023). People with depression are less likely to have children: Evidence from Finnish nationwide register study. Blog of Väestöliitto. 12.6. https://vaestoliitonblogi.com/2023/06/12/masennuksen-yhteys-lastensaantiin/

Sorsa, Tiia (2023). Majority of Finns think it is important to support families with children, but supporters of the National Coalition Party and the Finns Party stand out from the rest. Science leak article 8/2023. Helsinki: Väestöliitto, Population Research Institute. Available: https://www.vaestoliitto.fi/en/articles/majority-of-finns-think-it-is-important-to-support-families-with-children/

Tammisalo, K. (2023). Connecting and Disconnecting: Information and Communication Technology in Family Relationships. Dissertation. University of Turku. https://www.utupub.fi/handle/10024/175931